Early Diagnosis in Cancer

Below you can find the examinations and tests you have to undergo regularly for the early diagnosis of cancer: the 3 stages required to be followed for the early diagnosis of breast cancer are as follows:
  • 1. Mammography. When duly performed and interpreted with care, this method can detect a breast tomour approximately 2 years before it is felt by manual examination. Women with a family history of breast cancer must be checked with Breast Ultrasonography once a year from their age of 25. Before the age of 35, Mammography fails to ensure proper imaging due to the intentsity of breast structure. Women with a family history require a first mammography at the age of 35 and a check with mammography once a year after the age of 40. Women without a family history are suggested to be checked with Mammography every two years from the age of 40 and every year from the age of 50.

  • Regularly examine yourself every month. Every woman over 20 is recommended to perform this examination once a month.

  • Women over 40 must be examined by a physician every year.
These scanning methods must be performed on women without any complaint. People with complains such as manual sense of mass or within the risk group of breast cancer may require follow-up with more frequent intervals or additional diagnostic methods (such as ultrasonography – biopsy).
Uterine or cervical cancer:
Risk of uterine and cervical cancer increases in women as they age. Some women quit their gynaecological examinations as they think that “gynaecological” problems will not be seen any more after menopause.
This is not true. At whatever age you are, you are still recommended to undergo pelvic examination and Pap smear (cervical smear) tests by your gynaecologist once a year.
Colon cancer:
It is more common in the aged. 3 tests are recommended for the diagnosis of this malignant tumour:

Fecal occult blood test: It can reveal intestinal bleeding which can not be visually recognized.

A physician tries to sense tumours or irregular regions in rectum during the rectal examinations recommended to be performed every year in advanced ages.
Colonoscopy is performed as an advanced test upon clinic suspicion and enables the physician to examine large intestines and diagnose tumour formations

Prostate Cancer:
80% of the patient distribution consists of men at the age of or over 65. It is the most frequently seen cancer in old men. Rectal examination and “Prostate specific antigen” in blood is used for its early diagnosis.
Skin Cancer:
Your physician must carefully examine your skin during each physical examination. You can ensure early diagnosis by examining your own body. Report spots which particularly demonstrate shape and colour variations or have irregular boundaries or non-healing wounds to your physician.
Particularly pay attention to nevuses and pigmented (colour) spots on your skin (These are called nevus by physicians). They may first appear as small, flat or slightly grooving brown spots. By time, they may level, gain skin colour and disappear again. Nevuses are special cells which exist in bulk on skin rather than spreading on skin. Melanocytes give the skin its colour. When you are exposed to sunlight, they produce more pigments, give a darker colour and tan the skin. Biopsy must be applied to skin lesions which even seem to be the least harmless. It is the only way to learn whether it is malignant or not.
Skin cancer is the most common tumour seen in both women and men. Basal and squamous cell types of skin cancers are regional, easily removed and rarely threaten life. However, malignant melanoma must be removed in its early stage before spreading in the body since it can cause death. Exposition to ultraviolet rays in the sun, sun lamps and solarium can underly this cancer. People with high risk of melanoma are those with previous malignant melanoma history, close relatives with it, those who have been sunburnt during childhood or youth and people who have light skin colour, easily tan and have speckles.